A cartel is an organization resulting from a formal agreement between a group of producers of goods or services to regulate the supply of price regulation or manipulation. In other words, a cartel is a set of otherwise independent undertakings or countries that act together as if they were a single producer and can therefore fix the prices of the products they produce and the services they provide without competition. Under non-concerted agreements, companies would seek to improve their production or product in order to gain a competitive advantage. In an agreement, these companies have no incentive to do so. Based on research on organizational misconduct, scientists in economics, sociology and management have studied the organization of cartels. [17] [18] They ensured how the cartel actors cooperate to conceal their activities from the antitrust authorities. More than effective, participating companies must ensure that their collective secrecy is preserved. [19] It has also been argued that the diversity of participants (e.g.B age and size of firms) influences their ability to coordinate so as not to be detected. [20] Cartels often have price agreements at the international level.

If the price control agreement is sanctioned by a multilateral treaty or protected by national sovereignty, no antitrust action can be taken. [14] OPEC countries partially control the price of oil and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) presents international air ticket prices for international airline tickets, while the organization is exempt from antitrust law. [15] [16] Drug trafficking organizations, particularly in South America, are often referred to as «drug cartels.» These organizations meet the technical definition of agreements. They are loose related groups that establish rules among themselves to control the price and supply of a good, namely illicit drugs. Cartels have existed since ancient times. [2] The corporations of the European Middle Ages, associations of craftsmen or traders of the same industry, were considered to be cartels. [3] Closely organized sales agreements in late medieval mining, such as the salt syndicate of 1301 in France and Naples or the Alaun Cartel of 1470 between the ecclesiastical state and Naples. [4] The two unions had joint distribution organisations for total production, the Societas Communis Vendicionis [joint sales company]. Cartels have many structures and functions. Typologies were created to distinguish different forms of cartels:[9] Before World War II, cartel members could sign contracts that could be implemented in court except in the United States. . .

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